Inquiry Learning Model

Inquiry Learning Model

A. Understanding of Inquiry Learning Model

The inquiry is in English inquiry, meaning question, or examination, inquiry (Gulo, 2004: 84). Some opinions on the inquiry learning model , among others according to Widja (1989: 48) inquiry model is a model that emphasizes learning experiences that encourage students to find concepts and principles. 

Furthermore, Sumantri (1999: 164) states that the inquiry model of learning is a way of presenting lessons that give students the opportunity to find information with or without the help of teachers. The inquiry learning model is a learning paradigm that allows students to examine and interpret problems systematically that provide conclusions based on proof (Nasution 1992: 128). Further saidlearning model of inquiry is a process for obtaining and get information by observation or experiment to find an answer or solve the problem of the question or the formulation of future l ah by using the ability to think critically and logically.Inquiry learning model or approach is one form of student centered approach.The main characteristic of inquiry approach is to emphasize maximal student activity to search and find (put the student as subject of learning), all activity done by student is directed to find and find the answer of question from something that is expected so that it can grow self confidence se l f belief) as well as developing the ability to think in a systematic, logical, and critical or develop intellectual abilities as part of the mental processes (Wina Sanjaya, 2009: 196-197).

In the Curriculum 2013 training module, inquiry learning is grouped into learning models. Understanding Inquiry learning model is defined as a process of learning based on search and discovery through the process of thinking systematically. Knowledge is not a number of facts the result of remembering, but the result of the process of finding itself. Learning is basically a person's mental process that does not happen mechanically. Through that mental process, students are expected to develop intact both intellectual, mental, emotional, and personal. Therefore, in the process of learning planning, the teacher is not preparing a number of materials that must be memorized, but designing learning that allows learners to find their own material that must be understood.

Based on the above description, it can be concluded that the inquiry learning model is a series of learning activities that involve all students' ability to search and investigate systematically, critically, logically, analytically, so that they can formulate their own findings with confidence.

B. The goal of applying the Inquiry Learning Model

The  main goals of applying the Inquiry Learning Model in teaching activities are as follows.

1)      Maximum student involvement in the learning process. The learning activities here are emotional and emotional social activities.

2) The      activity's logical and systematic harassment on the purpose of teaching.

3)      Develop self-belief in what is found in the inquiry process.

To develop a strategy that is directed to the objective, it is necessary to consider the conditions that enable the student to be able to fully berinkuiri. Joyce put forward the general conditions that are a condition for the emergence of inquiry activities for students. These conditions include the following.

1)      Social aspects in the classroom and open atmosphere that invite students to discuss. This calls for a free (permissive) atmosphere in the classroom, where each student does not feel any pressure or obstacles to express his or her opinion. Their fear, or inferiority, or shame and sebaginya, either to friends, students, and for teachers are the factors that hinder the creation of a free atmosphere to l aces. Freedom of speech and respect for different opinions even if they are irrelevant, should always be maintained within the limits of the discipline.

2)      Inquiry focuses on the hypothesis. Students need to realize that basically all knowledge is tentative. There is no absolute truth. The truth is always temporary. Attitudes toward such knowledge need to be developed. Thus, the completion of the hypothesis is the focus of the inquiry strategy. If knowledge is seen as a hypothesis, then learning activities revolve around testing hypotheses with the submission of various relevant information. In light of the existence of different points of view among students, then as much as possible possible variations in the settlement period 1ah so that inquiry is open ended. Inquiry is open ended if there are different conclusions from each student with the correct argument as a result of the inquiry process.

3) The      use of facts as evidences. In the class discussed the validity and reliability of the fact as required in testing the hypothesis in general (Gulo, 2004: 85).

C. Type of Model / Approach Inquiry Learning

According Sund and Trowbridge in E. Mulyasa (2007: 109) there are three kinds of models or approaches of inquiry learning are:

1) Guided Inquiry

Guided inquiry is an inquiry approach that uses guidelines in the form of questions used to guide students. So the teacher's job in this approach is to guide and guide students widely and to arrange learning planning. Provision of guidance by the teacher adjusted to the level of development of Oversight lsecure students. This approach is used primarily for students with inexperienced learning by inquiry approach.

2) Free Inquiry

Free inquiry is an inquiry that allows students to do their own research like a scientist. This approach requires students to be able to identify and formulate the various issues to be investigated in groups.

3) Modified free inquiry

Free inquiry modified an inquiry approach where teachers give students problems then d i asked to solve these problems through observation, exploration and research procedures.

D. The Role of Teachers in the Hope of the Inquiry Learning Model

Characteristics of the   Inquiry Learning Model  :

1)      Emphasize the searching and finding process.

2)      Knowledge is built by learners through the search process.

3)      The role of teachers as facilitators and mentors of learners in learning.

4)  Emphasize on critical and analytical thinking processes to formulate conclusions.

To create such characteristics, the role of teachers is crucial. Teachers no longer serve as informants and students as recipients of information, even if this is indispensable. The teacher's primary role in creating inquiry conditions is as follows.

1)      Motivator, which gives stimulation so that students are active and passionate thinking.

2) The   facilitator, who shows the way out if there are obstacles in the students' thinking process.

3)    Questioners, to awaken students of the mistakes they make and to give themselves confidence.

4)    The administrator, who is responsible for the entire keg i atan in the classroom.

5)  Steering, which leads the flow of students' thinking activities to the expected goals.

6)      Managers, who manage learning resources, time, and class organizations.

7)      Rewarder, who rewards achievement in order to increase the spirit of heuristics in students.

8)   In order for teachers to perform their roles effectively, the introduction of students' skills is needed, especially the way they think, the way they respond, etc. (Gulo, 2004: 86).

E. Stages of Application of Inquiry Learning Model

Inquiry not only develops the intellectual ability but all the potential that exists, including emotional development and skill development. In essence, this inquiryis a process. This process begins with formulating problems, developing hypotheses, gathering evidence, testing hypotheses, and drawing temporary conclusions, testing conclusions temporarily to arrive at conclusions that to some degree are believed by the learners concerned. Thus  Steps or Stages of Implementation of Inquiry Learning Model are as follows

1.Step the presentation of the problem

The teacher provides questions that can provoke students to collect informasi.Keterlibatan students at this stage are: (1) respond Posit i f of the issues raised, (2) expresses the initial idea.

The student formulating the problem is the data verification stage 
in the Inquiry Learning Model

2.Stiffs of data verification

The teacher asks the referring question so that the student is able to identify and formulate the hypothesis. Student involvement at this stage is (1) observe the problem, (2) formulate the problem, (3) identify the problem, (4) make hypotes is, 5) designing experiments.

Stage conducting experiments and data collection 
in the Inquiry Learning model

3.Megadakan experiments and data collection

At this stage students are invited to experiment or collect data from the existing problems. The role of students in this stage is (1) conduct experiments or data collection, and (2) cooperate in collecting data.

Stage defines an explanation in 
the Inquiry Learning model

4.Merumuskan explanation Teachers invite students to do analysis and discussion of the results obtained so that students get the correct concepts and theories according to the scientific conception. Student involvement in this stage is (1) do d i skusi, and (2) summing the results of data collection .

Sample Phase Inquiry Analysis in 
the Inquiry Learning model

5.Contact inquiry analysis

The teacher asks the students to record the information obtained and given the opportunity to ask about what is related to the information they obtained before and then the teacher gives the exercise questions if dipelukan.Kentanglibatan students in this stage that is (1) record the information obtained, ( 2) actively ask questions, and (3) do the exercise questions. 

All the stages in the inquiry process mentioned above are the learning activities of the students. Teachers play a role to optimize the activity in the learning process as a motivator, facilitator, steering. In a pure expository strategy, all the stages are done solely by the teacher. Teachers who formulate problems, teachers who prove the hypothesis and formulate case i mpulan. All teacher acquisition at each stage is informed to learners. In the inquiry it is all done by the students.

The capabilities required at each stage of the inquiry process are listed in the following table.

Capabilities required

1. Formulate the problem

1. Awareness of the problem

2. See the importance of the problem

3. Formulate the problem

2. Formulate a temporary answer (hypothesis)

1. Test and classify the types of data that can be obtained

2. View and formulate existing relationships in a logical way

3. Formulate hypotheses

3. Testing tentative answers

1. Assemble the event

    a. Identify events


    b. Collecting data

    c. Evaluate the data

2. Compile data

    a. Translate data

    b. Interpret data

    c. Mengklasifikas i right

3. Data analysis

a. Looking at the relationship

b. Record equations and comparisons

c. Identify trends, sequences and  regularities

4. Drawing conclusions

1. Looking for patterns and meaning relationships

2. Formulate conclusions

5. Applying conclusions and generalizations

Expected to find new things similar

6. Write a report

1. Create a draft

2. Revise the final report

                                                                                  (Gulo, 2004: 95)

The Steps Inkuir i   learning model contained in training module Curriculum 2013 subjects PPKN are as follows:



Stage 1

Teachers conditioned that learners are ready to carry out the learning process, explaining the topics, objectives, and learning outcomes that are expected to be achieved by learners, explaining the main activities that must be done by learners to achieve goals, explaining the importance of topics and learning activities, this can be done in order to provide motivation learners learners.

Phase 2

Formulate the problem

Teachers guide and memfasil i tation learners to formulate and understand the real problem that has been presented.

Stage 3

Formulate the hypothesis

Teachers guide learners to develop hypothetical skills by conveying questions that can encourage learners to formulate temporary answers or to formulate possible estimates of the answers to a given problem.

Stage 4

Collecting data

Teachers guide learners by asking questions that can encourage learners to think about finding the information they need.

Stage 5

Test the hypothesis

The teacher guides the learners in the process of determining the answers they deem acceptable in accordance with the data and information obtained based on data collection. Most important in testing the hypotheses are looking t i incidence of learners' confidence on the answers given.

Stage 6

Formulate conclusions

The teacher guides the learners in the process of describing the findings obtained based on the results of hypothesis testing. To reach an accurate conclusion, the teacher may show the learners which data are relevant.

For example, when an Indonesian teacher will teach instructional techniques to write an observation report with inquiri learning model, the learning activities should lead to six stages of Inquiri learning, namely (1) formulating the problem, (2) formulating hypotes i s, (3) testing the answers, (4) draw conclusions, (5) apply conclusions, and (6) write reports.

Here is an example of a step-by-step learning process that runs in walkthrough, in the form of steps like the following table.

Activity step




Write a report

Articulation problems

Formulate the problem

Discusses the observed object

Formulate the problem

Observation result

Formulation of hypotheses

1. Hypothesis (1)

2. Hypothesis (2)

3. Hypothesis (3)

1. Search for data

2. Classify data

3. Record the hypothesis

Test the answer

Write down the report

result of pengamtan

1. Recording perist i wa

2. Record data

3. Noting interrelationships



1. Conclusion (1)

2. Conclusion (2)

3. Conclusion (3)

Make generalizations

Write a report

Observation report

Write down the observation report

In the example above, the conclusion is an integration of the three temporary inferences of each unit. After concluding the observation report then drawn general conclusions that apply to all reports of observations (Gulo, 2004: 96). Meanwhile, according to Vienna Sanjaya (2009: 202-205), step application of the model or application of inquiry approach in learning in the classroom are as follows:

1. Orientation

Orientation is a step to foster a responsive atmosphere or climate of learning where teachers condition students to be ready to carry out the learning process. There are several things that can be done in the orientation stage that is to explain the topics, objectives and learning outcomes that are expected to be achieved by students; explained the main points of the activities to be performed by the students to achieve the objectives (described steps Inku i ri and purpose); as well as explaining the importance of topics and learning activities to motivate students.

2. Formulate the problem

Formulate the problem as a step to bring students to a problem that contains puzzles. The given problem should challenge the students to think solving it. There are several things that must be considered in formulating the problem that is the problem should be formulated by the students themselves to foster their motivation in learning, the problem studied is a problem that contains a puzzle that the answer is sure as well as the concepts in the problem are the concepts that have been known in advance by students.

3. Submitting the hypothesis
A hypothesis is a temporary answer to a question that is examined so the truth needs to be tested. One of the ways that teachers can do to develop the ability hypothesis (guess) the student is by asking questions that can encourage students to formulate answers while or can formulate various perk i raan possible answers of an issue being studied. The ability to think logically will be greatly influenced by the depth of insight and the breadth of experience.

4. Collecting data
Collecting data is an activity of capturing the information needed to test the proposed hypothesis. The data collection activity is a very important mental process in intellectual development because it requires strong motivation, perseverance and ability to use its thinking potential. Therefore, the task of teachers in this stage is to ask questions that can encourage students to think about finding the necessary information.

5. Testing the hypothesis
Testing the hypothesis is a process to determine the answer that is considered received according to data or information obtained based on data collection. Students' beliefs on the answers given there are l ah most important thing in testing hypotheses.

6. Formulate conclusions
Formulating the conclusion is the process of decrypting the findings obtained based on the results of hypothesis testing. The step of formulating this conclusion is the final step in applying the inquiry approach in learning.

Meanwhile, according to Gulo (2004: 98) Stages of teaching and learning activities  inquiry model is  arranged as follows.
·           Facing the stimulus (planned or unplanned)
·           Explores reactions to a stimulating situation
·           Formulate the tasks learned and organize the class (formulate problems, class assignments, roles, etc.)
·           Learn to solve problems indent or group 
·           Analyze the process and progress of learning activities
·           Evaluation and follow-up

Inquiry learning strategies above deliver students to high-level instructional intentions, can also give the purpose of accompaniment ( nutrunant effect ) as follows.
·           Skills to process scientifically (observing, collecting and organizing data, identifying variables, formulating, and testing hypotheses, and drawing conclusions)
·           Development of creative power
·           Learning independently
·           Understanding ambiguity
·           Attitudes towards science that receive it tentatively (Gulo, 2004: 101).

The success of the inquiry process as described above depends on the introduction stage. The problems posed at this early stage should be questionable by the students. The general goal of the inquiry strategy is not the solving of the problem itself, but as Joice - Weil has pointed out to help the students' learning and stemming from their curiousity. Therefore, the success of this strategy depends very much on the material presented as a stimulus at this stage. Stage of Boat lThis is also called apresepsi stage or advanced organizer. So called because the material presented must be related to what has been known by previous students. Material disreliability with what students have acquired. In addition, the lesson material is not only familiar, but it stimulates the curiosity of the students. For that purpose, the presentation material is a thorough but brief description of what will be found in the lesson to be presented next (Gulo, 2004: 97).

F. Learning Scenario with Inquiry Learning Model

In the application of the Inquiry Learning Model , teaching and learning activities begin by exposing students to stimulating problems. This can be done by presenting a verbal presentation or real experience, or it can be designed by the teacher himself. If students show their reactions then the teacher seeks to draw their attention to different things (point of view, how they accept them). If the students have shown their interest and interest in the way stated by their different reactions, the teacher directs them to formulate and construct the problem.

The emergence of their reactions is highly dependent on the stimulation material presented by the teacher. Such material as the introduction of the teaching materials should be related to the knowledge already possessed by the student. This material is called advanced organize.

Furthermore, the students were directed at businesses so that they are able to analyze, organize their group work, and me l Report a result. Finally, students evaluate their own settlement in relation to the original objective. This circle repeats itself, albeit in other situations or in the face of new problems beyond their investigation (Gulo, 2004: 98).

G. Principles of Learning with Inquiry Model / Approach

The principle is something very basic that serve as a guide in doing something so as not to experience obstacles. Therefore, if the inquiry approach will be applied in the learning process it should refer to the principles (Wina Sanjaya, 2009: 199-201):

1) Oriented on Intellectual Development

The inquiry approach has the main purpose of developing thinking ability.Therefore, the inquiry approach is oriented to the process and learning outcomes that are part of the development of its thinking ability. The success of learning with inquiry approaches is not determined by the extent to which students can master the subject matter, but rather the extent to which students are engaged in searching and finding something.

2) Interaction Principles

In the learning process with inquiry approach there is a process of interaction between students, the interaction of students with teachers and the interaction between students and the environment. Learning as a process of interaction contains pengert i 's that the placement of teachers not as a source of learning, but as a regulator of the interaction itself or regulatory environment. The teacher should direct the students to develop their thinking skills through the interaction.

3) The Principle of Asking

The asking principle is crucial in applying the inquiry approach when learning takes place. This questioning ability must be possessed by the teacher because any questions given by the teacher will stimulate the answer from within the student as a form of student's thinking process. Various ability to ask should be mastered by the teacher, whether it asks just to ask students attention, ask to track, ask to develop ability or ask to test.

According to W. Gulo (2004: 103) the principle of asking there are two kinds of basic principles of asking questions and principles of further questioning. Asked basic principle is aimed at developing thinking skills base consisting of knowledge (knowledge), understanding (comprehension) and the app i cation.While the principle of further inquiry aims to develop innovative-creative thinking skills that include analysis, synthesis and evaluation.

4) Principles of Learning to Think

Learning is a process of thinking (learning how to think) is the process of developing the ability se l uruh brain (right brain and left brain). So good learning should pay attention to the balance of right brain and left brain thinking ability.

5) The Principle of Openness

Learning as a process to try all possibilities. Therefore, students need to be given the freedom to try in accordance with the development of logic and reasoning abilities. Learning will be meaningful if it presents the possibility of a hypothesis which must be verified and in this case the teacher must provide space to give a chance to s i swa develop hypotheses and prove the truth openly.


Gulo, W. 2004. Learning Teaching Strategy. Jakarta: Gramedia Widiasarana Indonesia. Sumantri, Mulyani and Johan Permana. 1999. Teaching and Learning Strategies. Jakarta: Depdikbud Dirjen Dikti.

Widja, I Gede. 1989. Strategy Development Basics and Historical Teaching Models. Jakarta: Depdikbud Dirjen Dikti.

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